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Top 6 Vitamins for Hypothyroidism 

Learn about the six essential vitamins and minerals to protect and support your thyroid health.
Top 6 Vitamins for Hypothyroidism 
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Specific vitamins and minerals can optimize your thyroid function. Ideally, most essential nutrients should come from our food through a healthy diet. But, some factors can decrease our ability to get nutrients from our food. For example, skipping meals, eating an unhealthy diet, and incorrect food preparation can make getting the necessary vitamins and minerals harder. Hypothyroidism can also slow or impair digestion or contribute to nutrient deficiencies. 

Dietary interventions, including nutritional supplements, can further support your thyroid health if they are the right supplements to meet your needs. Ahead are the top six vitamins, supported by research, that help protect the thyroid and encourage thyroid hormone production.


Magnesium plays a critical role in some of our most vital functions, including digestion, blood glucose metabolism, and blood pressure regulation. Magnesium is also responsible for over 300 enzyme reactions involved with protein synthesis!

And if that isn’t enough, magnesium is necessary to convert T4 (inactive thyroid hormone) into T3 (active hormone). Without enough T3, our cells are unable to function correctly. Furthermore, a 2023 study linked high levels of thyroid antibodies with low magnesium levels. Thyroid antibodies indicate the presence of Hashimoto’s, a thyroid autoimmune disorder and the leading cause of hypothyroidism in the United States.

Increasing magnesium intake may improve hypothyroidism symptoms, such as insomnia, fatigue, or constipation. Magnesium supplements may also benefit those with Hashimoto’s by lowering inflammation and reducing oxidative stress. These actions help further reduce symptoms and protect the thyroid from additional damage.

Vitamin A

Also known as retinol, vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin. It supports your vision and immune system and modulates inflammatory processes throughout your body. Vitamin A also activates thyroid hormone receptors in your cells. This action allows your cells to pull T3 from your bloodstream into your cells. Remember: for your cells to benefit from thyroid hormone, it must be in the T3 (active) form.

A 2022 review showed that low levels of vitamin A can negatively affect the balance of your thyroid hormones by:

  • Increasing thyroid-stimulation hormone (TSH) secretion
  • Reducing iodine uptake
  • Decreasing the conversion of T4 to T3
  • Lowering the uptake of T3 in your cells

The good news is that vitamin A supplements may help reverse these effects. One 4-month trial of vitamin A supplements reduced serum TSH levels. Experts believe this is due to vitamin A supporting the pituitary gland and preventing thyroid gland enlargement.

Animal models also showed that vitamin A supplementation can decrease thyroid volume and TSH levels while improving thyroid iodine uptake. Iodine is an essential nutrient needed for thyroid hormone production.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is best known for keeping your bones healthy and preventing osteoporosis. But it also reduces inflammation and plays a crucial role in maintaining a healthy immune system.

Experts believe vitamin D deficiency can contribute to joint and muscle pain symptoms and leaky gut syndrome. Many experts consider leaky gut syndrome a precursor to autoimmune conditions like Hashimoto’s.

By increasing vitamin D intake, your digestive system can begin to repair itself by closing and healing the gaps between the cells. This healing prevents toxins from leaking into your bloodstream. A 2018 study showed those taking vitamin D supplements significantly improved their TSH levels compared to those taking a placebo. Interestingly, increasing your vitamin D levels with supplements does not affect thyroid hormone (T4 and T3) levels.


Selenium is a trace element that is a crucial antioxidant that protects the thyroid gland from oxidative stress. Indeed, one of its primary roles is to regulate the immune system and prevent tissue damage in the thyroid. Furthermore, your cells need selenium to convert T4 to T3.

Low selenium levels are typical in those newly diagnosed with Hashimoto’s and an underactive thyroid. And a regular intake of selenium supplements decreases thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies, which, when present, indicates Hashimoto’s. Lowering TPO antibodies won’t cure Hashimoto’s, but it will help protect your thyroid from the ongoing attack by your immune system.

Adding selenium supplements to levothyroxine therapy (a type of thyroid medication) can significantly improve your thyroid function, according to a 2023 study.


Zinc is a powerful catalyst for over 100 enzymatic reactions in the body. It is also necessary for protein and DNA synthesis, growth and development, and tissue healing. Our bodies do not have a way to store zinc, so you must ingest it regularly through foods or supplements.

Zinc deficiency is common in those with hypothyroidism, especially those with Hashimoto’s. It can alter thyroid function by increasing oxidative stress and promoting inflammation.

Correcting a zinc deficiency can help restore your immune system and improve thyroid function by reducing TSH levels. When combined with selenium supplements, zinc may further reduce oxidative stress damage to your thyroid.

Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12, also called cyanocobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin. Your body needs B12 to develop the central nervous system and for DNA and red blood cell production.

It is common for many people with hypothyroidism to have a vitamin B12 deficiency, which can contribute to anemia. Over 25% of people with hypothyroidism are anemic. People with hypothyroidism and anemia often experience fatigue, sluggishness, and cognitive impairment.

A vitamin B12 supplement can improve hypothyroidism symptoms by increasing the number of healthy red blood cells. These cells can deliver oxygen-fresh blood to your tissues and promote energy metabolism.

Safe vitamin consumption

Consuming the recommended amount of a vitamin or mineral is safe. Some water-soluble vitamins are even safe at doses higher than recommended, as our bodies can eliminate the excess. But fat-soluble vitamins like vitamin A accumulate in your fat cells, which can lead to toxic levels over time.

High doses of some vitamins or minerals can be dangerous. For example:

  • Excessive magnesium can cause loose stools and diarrhea
  • Too much zinc can cause nausea and vomiting
  • Selenium can cause garlic breath, a metallic taste in the mouth, stomach upset, or nerve damage at more than 400 mcg daily from supplements and food sources 

Some dietary supplements can interfere with the absorption of your thyroid medication. So, talking with your healthcare provider before starting any supplement is best.

It is essential to know that dietary supplements are not regulated by the FDA like prescription medications are. This means that the FDA doesn’t determine whether a supplement is safe and effective or that the label is truthful before a company can sell it. Use caution when choosing supplements, and always choose a reputable brand.

A note from Paloma Health

Dietary supplements are intended to do just that: supplement your diet. Picking the right ones can optimize your thyroid health. Instead of buying and taking multiple supplements to fill the gaps in your thyroid health, consider switching to or starting Paloma Health’s Daily Thyroid Care supplement.

Thyroid experts designed our thyroid care supplement. It contains nine essential nutrients, including the six important supplements discussed in this article, to support your thyroid health. Order your first bottle today to jump-start your thyroid health. 


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Capriello S, Stramazzo I, Bagaglini MF, Brusca N, Virili C, Centanni M. The relationship between thyroid disorders and vitamin A.: A narrative minireview. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2022;13:968215. doi:

Mu Q, Kirby J, Reilly CM, Luo XM. Leaky Gut As a Danger Signal for Autoimmune Diseases. Front Immunol. 2017;8:598. doi:

Talaei A, Ghorbani F, Asemi Z. The Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on Thyroid Function in Hypothyroid Patients: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2018;22(5):584-588. doi:

Zhou Q, Xue S, Zhang L, Chen G. Trace elements and the thyroid. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2022;13:904889. doi:

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National Institutes of Health. Office of Dietary Supplements - Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know. Published September 3, 2020. Accessed October 13, 2023.

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Emilie White, PharmD

Clinical Pharmacist and Medical Blogger

Emilie White, PharmD is a clinical pharmacist with over a decade of providing direct patient care to those hospitalized. She received her Doctor of Pharmacy degree from Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences. After graduation, Emilie completed a postgraduate pharmacy residency at Bon Secours Memorial Regional Medical Center in Virginia. Her background includes caring for critical care, internal medicine, and surgical patients.

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